Sunday, April 30, 2017

Week 16 Prompt

Both of our readings this week talk about the culture of reading and the future of the book. So I have two questions for you as readers, pulling on your own experiences and all of the readings we have done over the semester: First, how have reading and books changed since you were a child, for you specifically? Second, talk a little about what you see in the future for reading, books, or publishing - say 20 years from now. Will we read more or less, will our reading become more interactive? What will happen to traditional publishing?

For me, I do not think that books have really changed. The way I read has changed, mostly. Since I am on the go more, I have come to find myself carrying around my iPad more so that I can read all the books I want on one platform. But whenever I am home, I still enjoy the feeling of a book in my hands. I have been into YA books and Sci-fi since middle school, and not much has changed in regards to what I read now (lol). I actually have added more subgenres of fiction, like LGBTQ fiction or historical fiction. I have noticed that with the rising of the importance of equality and inclusiveness, LGBTQ fiction books are becoming more popular.

For the future, I do think that reading may change but not too drastically. Books in print will not be going anywhere, and will still be bought off the shelves. I do think there will be an increase of eBooks in the future. I see books becoming more interactive as well. I played a game on my iPhone called Episode, that let you "lead your own story". You could choose what you looked like as far as race and clothing and hairstyle, and as the episodes moved along, whatever text you chose like "answer the phone call" or "ignore and call Mom back later" would then determine what your character would do next in the story. I feel like books will be moving in that direction, especially with the younger readers. These "create your own story" interactive books would be a major change for publishers.

Sunday, April 23, 2017

Week 15 Prompt

What do you think are the best ways to market for your library's fiction collection? Name and describe three ways you do or would like to market your library or your future library's fiction. These can be tools, programs, displays - anything that you see as getting the word out.

1. My first idea is to showcase library staff's picks of fiction books. I would set up a display near the fiction books, and have the staff pick out one of their personal favorite fiction books to put on the display. I would also have the staff write their own short summaries for those books. I would have them put their names by their staff pick as well.

2. My second idea is to have a 'fiction movie night'. Have a viewing of a fictional movie, like Passengers with Jennifer Lawrence and Chris Pratt. Related to that movie, I would display fictional books about space travel and provide those to the attendees of the movie night to turn them on to books relating to the subject. A book related to space travel that I have read on my own is called Coyote by Allen Steele.

3. My third idea would be to take to social media. I (along would with library staff) would create an Instagram or Twitter page, and I would encourage the staff to post their current reads on either platform. I would also encourage the staff to write little summaries about their current reads, as well as write about the ways the book can be read (iPad, Kindle, audiobook). For those who like to read on the go, there are many options to still experience the book. Many people (millennials and older, or younger) are all about social media, or just being on their phones in general.

Monday, April 17, 2017

Week 14 Prompt

Consider yourself part of the collection management committee of your local library, or a library at which you would like to work. You must decide whether or not to separate GBLTQ fiction and African American fiction from the general collection to its own special place. Some patrons have requested this, yet many staff are uncomfortable with the idea - saying it promotes segregation and disrupts serendipitous discovery of an author who might be different from the reader. Do you separate them? Do you separate one and not the other? Why or why not? You must provide at least 3 reasons for or against your decision. Feel free to use outside sources - this is weighty question that is answered differently in a lot of different libraries.

I don't think that these two sub genres of fiction should be separated. Both of the sub genres deserve to be highlighted but still underneath the fiction umbrella. There are many ways to do so by way of displays and booklists, but again, still within fiction. Here are my reasons why:

1. Separating the sub genres will lead to other separations within the fiction umbrella. Further separations will start to follow, like Christian fiction or Latin American fiction. It will be hard to find a stopping point.

2. Underneath those sub genres of African American fiction and GBLTQ fiction, there are even more! GBLTQ fiction about transitioning or African American fiction about the streets (Street Lit). Like reason number one, there isn't a place to stop. Plus, not all African American Fiction or GBLTQ fiction can reside in the same spot. A fantasy book with an African American protagonist and a mystery book with an African American protagonist could not be on the same shelve due to the way the library's shelving system works.

3. I would be afraid that my patrons would feel isolated or embarrassed if they see African American fiction or GBLTQ fiction all alone in its' own shelving. As a library, our goal is to include everyone and make all feel welcome and unafraid. Keeping both sub genres in general collection would show the patrons that they are able to browse books of all sorts of topics without the judgement of others. 

Sunday, April 16, 2017

Urban Fiction Annotation

A Hustler's Wife
by Nikki Turner


Fifteen year old Yarni Pitman is just a sweet and innocent high school student trying to get an education and go the distance. Yarni dresses well for her age, and she's captain of the cheer squad. One fateful evening, Yarni's friend Melanie comes over with her brother's phone book with numbers of the "big dogs" that run the streets and the game in town. The girls dial up the biggest of the dogs, Des, and for Yarni, everything changes. Yarni and Des develop instant attraction and a love story like no other. Fast forward to Yarni's last day of high school, and she finds herself in a courtroom where her now husband is being sentenced to life in prison. Yarni learns how hard it is to be the wife of a hustler when her only provider is put behind bars.

Elements of Urban Fiction:

* Disclaimer: I did some searching online to find these elements because our course textbook wasn't very helpful in this genre (or subgenre?) They will be cited below! *

Pacing - The pacing in this story is pretty fast with a lot of flashbacks.

Characterization - The protagonists in this genre are typically young, ages 19-25 (Street Lit LibGuide). Yarni is 15 and in high school. She is very strong minded and independent despite how innocent she is. Yarni's mother Gloria is another character that gets plenty of "screen time" during this story. Gloria is a single mother who owns a catering business and has set out to provide Yarni with the best life, spoiling her but raising her to have a strong backbone and to be able to stand on her own. Des is a drug king-pin that is very well known around the area and is known to kill anyone who does him wrong during a drug or gambling deal. But when it comes to Yarni, Des is a teddy bear and loves her so much and only wants what is best for her

Storyline - The storyline contains content during present time and flashbacks to when Yarni first met Des and how taken she was with him and he with her. The story heavily focuses on Yarni's relationship with Des, as well as her mother, Gloria (Street Lit LibGuide).

Modern References - A Hustler's Wife makes many references to brand-name items (Street Lit LibGuide). Yarni carries a lot of brand-name purses like Gucci and Liz Claiborne. Des drives an old diesel Mercedes Benz, and he buys Yarni an old brand-name vehicle called Sterling but Yarni actually prefers a BMW. Des also rewards Yarni with gifts of jewelry and fancy things whenever she does well in school.

Urban Environment - This novel shows a lot of focus on "the streets", where a lot of business is conducted right out in the open or in hidden alleyways (Street Lit Libguide). There is a lot of focus about the residences within Richmond. Des himself lives in a nice modern apartment on the West side of Richmond but he comes from and knows the projects. Yarni lives in a wealthy suburb called Richmond Hills. Despite both characters living in nice places, they are not unaware of the poverty and street crime that happens around them daily.

Writing Style - Urban fiction is usually written in first person or the narration alternates between different characters (Urban Lit YA). Yarni is the main narrator but the writing will quickly jump to the thoughts of Gloria, Des, or sometimes Des's mother Joyce. A lot of slang is used in this novel, including the N word. The author doesn't shy away from use of curse words.


Death Before Dishonor by 50 Cent and Nikki Turner

Wifey by Kiki Swinson

Desperate Hoodwives by Meesha Mink

A Gangster's Girl by Chunichi Knott


Humphrey, J. (2017). About street lit. Retrieved from

Urban fiction. (2017). Characteristics. Retrieved from

Sunday, April 9, 2017

Week 13 Prompt

As librarians, we should encourage our adult patrons to read whatever material that appeals to them. I feel like the discouragement of certain titles or genres only hurts us and our patrons, and limits their reading. Not only should librarians encourage adult patrons to read what they like, we should also encourage to read materials that are out of their comfort zone, so they can narrow down or broaden their likings (young adult, fantasy, graphic novels, or even children's books). In alignment with the ALA website, librarians must promote intellectual freedom for patrons to read, write, discover, any and all types of material. 

"ALA actively advocates and educates in defense of intellectual freedom - the rights of library users to read, seek information, and speak freely as guaranteed by the First Amendment. Intellectual freedom is a core value of the library profession, and a basic right in our democratic society. A publicly supported library provides free, equitable, and confidential access to information for all of its community."

Librarians (as well as baby librarians like myself and my classmates) are always coming up with ways to promote reading and ways to better serve patrons that enjoy young adult novels or graphic novels. The local public library in my town has books on display in the main lobby that cater to those who love young adult books, and there is a display in the Teen Space as well, for not only young adult lit but graphic novels, too. In my own topic paper for this course, I referenced my own LibGuide that has fictional and non-fiction books that are targeted for young adults, but adults are still welcome to use the information as well. I remember feeling embarrassed myself because YA novels are my favorite genre, and a majority of my own leisure reading is in this genre. I personally would not want to be discouraged from reading this genre or any genre of my liking. 


ALA. (2017). Intellectual freedom: Issues and resources. Retrieved from:

Young Adult Annotation

A Psalm for Lost Girls
by Katie Bayerl

Synopsis: Everyone in the town of New Avon thought that Tess da Costa was a saint... like literally a saint. People all over town were falling at her feet with prayer, they all wanted her to lay hands on them and heal the sick. Callie, Tess's younger sister was trying to see through all the hype. Tess was just her sister, her best friend. When Tess suddenly passes away from an undetected heart defect, the people of New Avon begin to push for Tess to officially become a saint. Tess and Callie's mother is quite ecstatic over all of the excitement, while Callie is quite disgusted, and she feels like her sister is getting taken away from her all over again.

When Ana Langone, a local girl who has been missing for several months, is found alive at the foot of a shrine created for Tess, the town's push towards Tess's sainthood heightens even more, and Callie has finally had enough.

All Callie wants is to highlight the best parts about her sister, despite her sudden "sainthood". Callie is determined to prove that Tess wasn't just a saint, but a great sister, and an awesome best friend, and a girl secretly involve with a boy. Before she knows it, Callie (with the help of Danny, Tess's secret boyfriend) discovers more than she realizes: Tess's hidden diary, family secrets, and the world shaking truth behind Ana Langone's kidnapping.

Elements of Young Adult Fiction: 

Characterization - Callie da Costa is our protagonist in this story. Protagonists of YA novels are usually teenagers, or budding teenagers, in high school or almost out of middle school. Callie is trying to get through life while mourning for her older sister, Tess. We hear parts of Tess's story through her journal entries. Callie is met with a pretty particular dilemma; mourning her sister while trying to preserve the sweet memory of her while the entire town tries to make a saint out of Tess, especially after her death.

Pacing - YA novels usually have fast pace literature. A Psalm for Lost Girls is fast paced, which can be seen in the length of the chapters, ranging from one to five pages. This brings about a "page turner" vibe when reading. The chapters are shorter which gets the reader to move through the book much quicker.

Language - The language used in Psalm resonates with young adults of this generation, who are starting to use curse words a lot more. The way language is used is important here, too. When Callie narrates, she refers to her sister as "you", for example; "I squeeze my eyes shut, but it's too late. Reality rushes back, slamming me beneath the ribs. You: gone. Me: here alone..." (Bayerl, pg. 44).

Storyline - The storyline of Psalm jumps back and forth but forward at the same time. The reader starts off seeing the story from Callie's point of view. After a few chapters, entries from Tess's hidden diary portray her side of things, up to her death. The storyline moves a long quite fluidly due to short page counts in each chapter.

The Last Thing You Said by Sara Biren

I'll Give You the Sun by Jandy Nelson

Goodbye Days by Jeff Zentner

The Hidden Memory of Objects by Danielle Mages Amato


Bayerl, K. (2017). A psalm for lost girls. New York: Penguin Random House.

Sunday, April 2, 2017

Week 12 Prompt

For your prompt this week, please complete the Readers' Advisory Matrix, found on the last page of the reading title RA Guide to Nonfiction in the Canvas files, about a non-fiction book you have read. If you have not read a non-fiction book recently, feel free to use some of the techniques on how to "read" a book in five minutes such as Mary Chelton's handouts or any others we have covered to get a feel for a non-fiction book.

Yes Please by Amy Poehler

Narrative Continuum - Highly narrative (reads like fiction)

Subject - Self-help

Type - Autobiography/Memoir

Appeal - Very appealing to young people, starting out their lives and trying to find their way

Pacing - Fast paced, influences by facts about Poehler's life and how she found her way to the stand-up stage and beyond, as well as her path into marriage and motherhood

Characterization - The main character is Amy Poehler (the author), and mostly her but she includes anecdotes about her ex-husband, her children, and other comedic influences in her life

Storyline - Each "part" of the story starts out with a different city, and then how she flourished in each, as well as had failures. She discusses her own birth (with help of her own mother), doing improv, sex advice, divorce, motherhood

Detail - There are three "parts" of the book, with its' own set of chapters.
Part 1: Say whatever you want. Part 2: Do whatever you like. Part 3: Be whoever you are

Learning/Experiencing - The entire book offers advice to the reader on different chapters of life

Language - Language matters very much here!

Setting - Each "part" takes place in different parts of the U.S.
Part 1: Boston, Part 2: Chicago, Part 3: New York, all great places to develop improvisation skills

Tone - Light

Why would a reader enjoy this book (rank appeal)?

1. Experience
2. Detail
3. Tone

Sunday, March 26, 2017

Week 11 Prompt

Ebooks and audiobooks are a part of our landscape. What does the change in medium mean for appeal factors? If you can't hold a book and feel the physical weight of it in your hands, how does that affect your knowledge of the genre? How about readers being able to change the font, line spacing, and color of text - how does that affect pacing and tone? How about audiobooks? Track length, narrator choice, is there music?

Ebooks and audiobooks have indeed become part of our landscape as librarians and readers' advisory experts. I think these three mediums give more flexibility to the way we can enjoy reading. I have an iPad, and I have used it (the iBooks app) for years when it comes to reading books. For this class, it's easier to use ebooks and just buy them online because I usually don't have time to run to the library and check the book out. Plus, I am able to find more books that relate to the book I just purchased with the help of suggestions. My iPad is easy to carry around and just like a regular book mark, whenever I open the iBook app back up after putting it down, it opens back up to the page you were on.

I will say that I am still a sucker for holding a book in my own hands, and feeling the pages. I grew up with only books and had become accustomed to checking out books and searching for them in libraries. I don't think that the shift from print books to ebooks has affected my knowledge of the genre; in fact, I think it helps me explore the genre even more, with the way the internet helps play a part in the suggestions for my next read. As far as changes in font, line spacing, or color of text; I like the ability to customize the way I read. My iPad settings have the background of the text a khaki color, and the font is black, and the font size is probably 12-14 (in similarity with the font on a computer). In the evening, I set it to night mode which dims the screen. My settings are actually pretty similar to a regular book, with black print and khaki colored paper (not quite white but not quite brown). I will say that the font size effects how many pages are actually there in the ebook, which can become misleading. The smaller the font the less pages, but for those who need enlarged font, the pages could get into the 400s or more.

Audiobooks are uncharted territory for me, as an adult. When I was younger, my mom would play audiobooks for herself as she drove, and I wouldn't really pay attention. And now that I am older, I have not turned to them.... yet. I'm not in my car enough to use them, and whenever I do read, ebook or print, I play music. Listening to my book hasn't become something I want to do... YET! But I do see the appeal, when a reader is on a long drive and they need something to keep their mind working. Or when a reader puts an audiobook on their iPod as they're on the train or subway. Audiobooks are also very light (hehe!) and can be taken anywhere, as long as you have headphones, a cassette player, a cd player, or an aux cord for the car. This is one medium that I hope to have more experience with in the future, so I can help refer my patrons to good audiobooks that will be to their liking!

Sunday, March 12, 2017

Book Club Experience

I attended an Adult Book Club meeting at my local library. This month, the book being discussed was Their Eyes Were Watching God by Zora Neale Hurston. I have never read this book but had heard good things about the book and the author in the past. I was a bit nervous observing since I had not read the book on my own and I felt like I was unable to participate in any of the discussion, but I stayed to observe anyway!

The book club held an hour long meeting, from 1:30pm to 2:30pm, in one of the Collaborative Spaces in the public library. Their Eyes Were Watching God is the "Big Read" of 2017. The "Big Read" is usually promoted by about 40 different community organizations, and it is used to spark discussion, promote reading, and build up the community. This particular Adult Book Club meeting was one of 27 events that are centered around Hurston's novel.

The book club meeting was facilitated by a library employee named Hillary, and she seemed to be the one who was asking the questions to bring about discussion. Hillary would ask a question and then let the attendees respond, and then she added in her own thoughts once everyone had said their piece. I heard some questions like "What did you think about...?" or "How did this passage on page X make you feel?". From what I could gather, Hurston wrote this novel with a lot of slang; the main character, Janie Crawford, used a lot of broken English, and had heavy use of the N-word. This actually led to a small sub-conversation about censorship, which I was able to chip in a little and talk about the way this language gave the reader more of a feel for the time period of the novel. 

Not all of the attendees participated with the conversation but there were a few who spoke on multiple occasions. None of the attendees stole the spotlight when discussing the novel.

The atmosphere of the book club was very welcoming, and in the Collaborative Space there were chairs and tables for attendees to sit and converse. No food or drinks were provided in the meeting but a few people had brought their own drinks with caps or lids. This book club discusses various genres of books and they meet once a month. For example, next month the Adult Book Club will discuss The Little Paris Bookshop by Nina George. Although I did not have a chance to read the book, I liked the observation. This ended up being a cool experience. I have never attended a book club before this one, and it was interesting to see the attendees (that participated) discuss their thoughts and different views of the novel.

Sunday, March 5, 2017

Women's Lives & Relationships Annotation

Me Before You
by Jojo Moyes


Louisa Clark is a very ordinary girl and she leads a very ordinary life. Lou has a long-time boyfriend, Patrick, and she is part of a very close knit family. After losing her job at a small cafe, she takes a job as daytime caregiver to Will Traynor, ex-Master of the Universe, who becomes wheelchair bound after a tragic accident. Will was always used to a wealthy lifestyle of business, pleasure, and traveling the world.

Since his accident, Will has acquired a dark outlook on the world, unleashing his feelings through rudeness and sarcastic conversation. Despite this, Lou learns more about Will and before she knows it, Will's happiness is everything to her. Louisa finds out that Will has a shocking scheme planned after six months of her working there and she sets out to show Will that there is still so much life that is worth living.

Elements of Women's Lives & Relationships/Women's Fiction:

1. Main character - Our protagonist, Louisa (Lou) Clark, is female, like the author. In women's lit, the protagonist has support from mostly female characters, and sometimes male characters. Louisa lives with her mother, father, granddad, sister, and nephew. She receives influence from all but mostly from her sister, Katrina (sometimes called Treena). Louisa also has support from her long-time boyfriend, Patrick.

2. Mood - Women's literature usually "offers up a generally optimistic outlook", even when the mood of the story is humorous, lighthearted, tragic, or romantic (Saricks, pg. 156). The reader is given a peak into the lives of the main character, thus pulling at the heartstrings of the reader.

3.  Pacing - Women's lit is set at a leisurely pace. The reader gets pulled in and as they find out more details and anecdotes about the protagonist, they continue to read and become involved with the story. In the prologue, the reader gets a glimpse into Will Traynor's busy lifestyle, and we see a preview into the tragic accident that changes his life before the prologue ends and we cut to the beginning of chapter one. Once chapter one is started, we get a glimpse into Louisa's life before her path crosses with Will. This definitely got me to want to read more of the book!

4. Storyline - "...Reflect the issues affecting women's lives and portray women facing difficult situations" (Saricks, pg. 156). The story opens with Louisa coming home from work early, and going through her usual routine of asking if her granddad needs anything before helping herself to tea or water. Then, within the first few pages of chapter one, we find out that Louisa has lost her job, files for unemployment, and seeks help through an employment agency to find a new place of work. Mrs. Clark does not work so she can stay home with her ailing father. Mr. Clark works at a furniture factory and is on the night shift. Katrina works at a floral shop and has a son, Thomas, who attends elementary school and is watched by his grandparents after school. The family depends on the wages of Louisa, Katrina, and their father. Katrina mentions going back to university towards the end of chapter three which means that Louisa's wages will have to help the family even more.

5. Setting - The setting of Me Before You is contemporary. Louisa and her family live in a four bedroom house in a small neighborhood on the countryside that is outside of London. Louisa's new employment location is two miles away from her house, Granta House, a small annex turned living space that is on the property of a bigger mansion that belongs to Will Traynor's parents. Women's lit also takes the background of the protagonist into account. Louisa had a job at a cafe and once she learns of its' closing, she takes a few odd jobs before taking the job as Will Traynor's daytime caregiver.

6. Writing style Me Before You is written with a lot of dialogue between characters, as well as reflection into the protagonist and her thoughts. The author uses some text messaging to show a small, private conversation  between Louisa and her sister Katrina, discussing Louisa's new job. Since the setting of the story is in the U.K., the language is different from that of the U.S. For example, instead of saying "claiming unemployment", Louisa says "I made my first claim for Jobseeker's Allowance" (Moyes, pg. 20). 


My (Not So) Perfect Life by Sophie Kinsella

Me After You by Jojo Moyes

The Marvelous Misadventures of Ingrid Winter by J.S. Drangsholt

Faithful by Alice Hoffman


Moyes, J. (2012). Me before you. United Kingdom: Penguin Books.

Saricks, J.G. (2009). The readers' advisory guide to genre fiction: Second edition. Chicago: ALA.

Saturday, March 4, 2017

Topic Paper - A Guide to Young Adult Readers' Advisory

For this assignment, I chose to highlight tips and tools used to better improve the YA readers' advisory experience.

First, I started with a bit of background of the readers' advisory process. The readers' advisory interview is key to helping our patrons find more books to their liking. We ask questions like; "What did you just finish reading?", "What elements of the book did you like the most?", "Do you want to continue reading books by the same author, or would you like to branch out?". These base questions are essential to perform the interview and lead the reader to their next book. I also highlighted that most young adult literature is fiction, for readers ages 12 to 18. However, "New Adult Literature" is aimed at young adults from ages 18 to 30.

Second, I wrote about the characteristics of YA literature:

  • The authors write from the viewpoint of young people
  • YA literature is fast paced
  • YA novels deal with emotions that resonate with the reader
  • Characters from many different ethnic and cultural groups
  • "I want the credit!" - young adult protagonists are often trying to prove themselves by solving their problems on their own, without the help of parents
  • Coming of age narrative
  • Issues of identity, such as class, religion, or race
  • Language in the novels' dialogue reflects the way teens speak, using slang
Third, I began writing about the way we market to YA readers, by way of social media like Twitter, YouTube, and Facebook. On YouTube, publishers and authors create book trailers to "tease" the reader and spark their interest on an upcoming title. Another marketing idea is the awards given to books. The Young Adult Library Services Association (YALSA) provides various awards for YA books that have appealed (or still appeal) to the readers.

  • Michael L. Printz Award
  • Odyssey Award
  • Morris Award
  • Edwards Award
  • Nonfiction Award
With the knowledge of these award winning books, librarians can better direct their YA readers towards highly accredited and praised books. These books can be displayed in a teen space of a public library where YA readers can see the books and the librarians can offer up suggestions.

Another marketing initiative is the creation of movies or television adaptations based off of popular YA reads. Librarians in a teen space can advertise for a movie night showing films that are based off of books such as:

  • Harry Potter Series by J.K. Rowling
  • Hunger Games Series by Suzanne Collins
  • The Fault in Our Stars by John Green
  • Twilight Series by Stephenie Meyer
  • The Perks of Being a Wallflower by Stephen Chbosky
  • Divergent Series by Veronica Roth
Fourth, I listed tips and tools that can be useful in the YA readers' advisory interview and process.


  • Keep popular materials stocked and make sure to replace copies if they are worn out
  • Besides YA fiction, have nonfiction, magazines, graphic novels, and audiobooks readily available in your collection
  • Be familiar with the material
  • Create eye catching displays for the YA readers to see when they enter the teen space
  • If a YA reader is nervous about coming up to your desk to ask about a book, be open to getting out from behind the desk and approaching them, asking "Can I help you find a book you're looking for?"
  • Create a rapport and connection with the patron
  • Display staff picks of different YA titles
  • Make sure to listen to a YA patrons' likes and dislikes
  • Don't make any type of judgment when speaking to YA readers about books
  • Don't push your own favorite books onto a teen
  • Don't tune out or stop listening to your patron
  • Don't narrow your knowledge of YA books to fiction only
11. Barbakoff, A. (2014). Readers’ advisory to teens: An adult services librarians’      guide. Retrieved from
22. Bertin, J. (2017). What are the characteristics of young adult literature8?   Retrieved from characteristics-of-young-adult-literature-11042.html
33. Hogan, P. (2011). Tips for young adult readers’ advisory. Retrieved from
44. YALSA Book Awards. (2017). Retrieved from
55. YA LIT. (2005). Retrieved from